Runtime exception over checked exception in java

When should you create a custom runtime exception??

You can create unchecked exceptions by subclassing RuntimeException whenever your method needs to signal a programming error.

For example there is some method which takes an int argument,performs some operation using that argument and returns. Now it is always a good practice to throw an IllegalArgumentException in the beginning of the method for method arguments that shouldnt be null , so that later you dont have to traverse the method to look what went wrong. Now this exception IllegalArgumentException should be a runtime exception as this is a programming error , user cannot do anything about it and you dont want to write a try catch in every other method where you throw this exception .

Business exceptions should be declared as checked exception as the user can always come out of that exception , like suppose a user tries to book a train ticket and somehow the booking fails in that scenario you wont give user an application error page but will ask to try after some time, such exceptions can be checked exceptions.

Kindly let me know your views on this by posting comments. Thanks 🙂


Hashcode() and equals() for StringBuilder and StringBuffer

StringBuilder and StringBuffer classes doesnt override equals and hashcode() methods in java.

As String class is immutable in java, mutable StringBuilder and StringBuffer were introduced in java to contruct Strings.

equals() and hashcode() method is mainly overridden to support collections so that if i use a map like hashmap i can retrieve my object that i saved using correct key on basis of hashcode() and equals() method.

A key is preferred to be a mutable one so that anytime i can recover my value for that key, now stringbuilder and stringbuffer being mutable are not preferred as keys and hence there is no point of overriding equals() and hashcode() method for them as they shouldnt be used as a candidate for key in collections.

String concatenation in java

String concatenation using + operator::

String sunita="sunita"
String pndey="pandey";
String sunitapandey=sunita+pndey;

Under the covers what does a compiler do:

String sunitapandey=new StringBuilder(String.valueOf(sunita)).append(pndey).toString();

ByteCode for the same—-

0 ldc [16]
2 astore_1 [sunita]
3 ldc [18]
5 astore_2 [pndey]
6 new java.lang.StringBuilder [20]
9 dup
10 aload_1 [sunita]
11 invokestatic java.lang.String.valueOf(java.lang.Object) : java.lang.String [22]
14 invokespecial java.lang.StringBuilder(java.lang.String) [28]
17 aload_2 [pndey]
18 invokevirtual java.lang.StringBuilder.append(java.lang.String) : java.lang.StringBuilder [31]
21 invokevirtual java.lang.StringBuilder.toString() : java.lang.String [35]
24 astore_3 [sunitapandey]

//.toString method in Stringbuilder

public String toString() {
// Create a copy, don't share the array
return new String(value, 0, count);

the above concatenation will create a new StringBuilder with one char[] buffer with 16 size and at last .toString() method creates a new String object with a copy of StringBuilder buffer.

Suppose you are concatenating using + operator in a loop then imagine the number of temporary objects will be created.

so instead of doing like

String concat="";
for(int i=0;i<100;i++){

one can efficiently do like

StringBuilder concat=new StringBuilder();
String con=concat.toString();

However ,one point to be noted here is , if i use “+” operator for a concatenation and if the result is resolved during compilation time itself then a new StringBuilder instance is not created , stringBuilder conversion is only done for those strings whose value is computed during runtime . Look at following example and their generated bytecode.

String grima="garima"+"pandey";

Bytecode for the same—
0 ldc [16]
2 astore_1 [grima]
3 return
Line numbers:
[pc: 0, line: 8]
[pc: 3, line: 9]
Local variable table:
[pc: 0, pc: 4] local: n index: 0 type: java.lang.String[]
[pc: 3, pc: 4] local: grima index: 1 type: java.lang.String

 Note–Whenever possible prefer .append(char[] str) or .append(char c) methods of StringBuilder over .append(String str) method of StringBuilder as its fast.